Total Quality Framework

Ethnography: Number of Observations

The following is a modified excerpt from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015, pp. 199-201), a qualitative methods text covering in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, ethnography, qualitative content analysis, case study, and narrative research.

An important decision that ethnographic researchers need to make is the ethnographynumber of observations to conduct, or, more accurately, the number of:

  • Sites to observe.
  • People within sites to observe.
  • Observational events (e.g., how often to revisit a particular site).

Addressing this question can be complex—a process of both art and science—or fairly straightforward. In the simplest case, the number of sites to observe and observation events will be dictated by the (1) breadth and depth of the research objectives, (2) breadth and depth of the target population, and/or (3) practical realities of the research (e.g., the accessibility of the target participants, financial resources, and time available to complete the study). If, for example, the research objective is to examine the implementation of new procedures at a county free clinic, the number of sites to observe is just one (the clinic) and the frequency of observations will be determined by such factors as the fluctuation in the patient load (i.e., the slow- and high-volume hours in the clinic) and level of procedural details the observer wants to capture.

A more complex situation arises when the focus of the research is on a broad target population such as consumers. For instance, ethnographic research to study how consumers shop for vitamins would most likely require many observations of the same or different individuals within a variety of retail environments (e.g., supermarkets, drug stores, and superstores such as Read Full Text

Methodology

“Methodology” is a new compilation of selected articles appearing in Research Design Review froMethodologym 2010 to 2017. This compilation includes 26 articles concerning a variety of design considerations in qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods research, plus 2 articles on becoming a methodologist. There are many other articles in RDR that focus entirely on qualitative design — as an example, “Qualitative Design & Methods: 14 Selected Articles from 2019” — and articles devoted to quantitative design — such as “Choice of Mode & the Do-Nothing Response” and “The Vagueness of Our Terms: Are Positive Responses Really That Positive?”

At the heart of this compilation, however, is methodology; specifically, the unique and shared design considerations in qualitative and quantitative research as well as the synergy derived from mixed methods designs.

“Methodology: 26 Articles on Design Considerations in Qualitative, Quantitative, & Mixed Methods Research — Plus, Thoughts on becoming a methodologist” is available for download here.

Qualitative Research: Transparency & Reporting

Qualitative Research: Transparency & Reporting“Qualitative Research: Transparency & Reporting” is a new compilation of 12 articles appearing in Research Design Review from 2010 to 2019. These short articles touch on various ways qualitative researchers can be (and have been) transparent in their documentation and open to sharing data, and how qualitative researchers can be (and have been) embracing transparency to develop “meaningful” reports while encouraging constructive scrutiny of research design.

“Qualitative Research: Transparency & Reporting” is available for download here.

Three other compilations are also available for download:

“Qualitative Data Analysis: 16 Articles on Process & Method” is available for download here.

“The Focus Group Method: 18 Articles on Design & Moderating is available for download here.

“The In-depth Interview Method: 12 Articles on Design & Implementation” is available for download here.