Total Quality Framework

Ethnography & the Observation Method: 15 Articles on Design, Implementation, & Uses

“Ethnography & the Observation Method” is a new compilation Ethnography & the Observation Methodthat includes a selection of 15 articles appearing in Research Design Review from 2013 to 2021. There are certainly many other articles in RDR that are relevant to ethnography and the observation method — such as those having to do with multiple methods, e.g., A Multi-method Approach in Qualitative Research, and a quality approach to design, e.g., Quality Frameworks in Qualitative Research, and transparency, e.g., Reporting Qualitative Research: A Model of Transparency — however, the 15 articles chosen for this compilation  are specific to this method. It is hoped that this brief text will be useful to the student, the teacher, and the researcher who is interested in furthering their consideration of a quality approach to designing and conducting ethnographic studies.

“Ethnography & the Observation Method: 15 Articles on Design, Implementation, & Uses” is available for download here.

Five similar compilations, devoted to particular methods or techniques, are also available:

“Reflexivity: 10 Articles on the Role of Reflection in Qualitative Research” is available for download here.

“The Focus Group Method: 18 Articles on Design & Moderating” is available for download here.

“The In-depth Interview Method: 12 Articles on Design & Implementation” is available for download here.

“Qualitative Data Analysis: 16 Articles on Process & Method” is available for download here.

“Qualitative Research: Transparency & Reporting” is available for download here.

The TQF Qualitative Research Proposal: Limitations

TQF Proposal-Limitations

The following is a modified excerpt from Applied Qualitative Research Design: A Total Quality Framework Approach (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015, p. 344).

The Total Quality Framework (TQF) research proposal has been discussed in several articles appearing in Research Design Review. In “A Quality Approach to the Qualitative Research Proposal,” the importance of critical thinking in proposal writing and the essential eight sections of the TQF research proposal — built around the central role of quality design — are introduced. Three articles in RDR focus on the Design section of the proposal — one article discussing Scope and Data Gathering (i.e., the Credibility component of the TQF), another article reflecting specifically on method and mode, and a third article concerning the ethical considerations of the proposed study. Beyond the Design section, RDR also includes articles on the Background & Literature Review and Research Team sections of the TQF proposal.

Another section of the TQF research proposal is devoted to Limitations. In this section, the proposal author will methodically apply the TQF to produce a critique of the proposed research design in ways that are consistent with what has been discussed in the Design section of the proposal. That is, the Limitations section will contain subsections on Credibility (Scope and Data Gathering), Analyzability (Processing and Verification), Transparency, and Usefulness. In each of these subsections the researcher will acknowledge the likely limitations of the study design that is being proposed, and briefly opine on the likely implications of these limitations to the overall usefulness of the research.

No qualitative (or quantitative) research study is perfect (with only strengths and no drawbacks). By readily (and unhesitatingly) acknowledging that there are limitations in the proposed design, the proposal writer takes the “high road” and thereby strengthens the case that the proposed design is the best one possible, given the funding, time, and other resources that are available to support the study. It also demonstrates that the researcher will be cognizant of these limitations in formulating conclusions and making recommendations based on the study’s findings.

The Total Quality Framework: 8 Articles in RDR in 2021 on Research Integrity & Qualitative Research Proposal Design

Research Design Review is a research blog that went live more than 12 years ago, back in November 2009. RDR TQF 2021 RDR Articlescurrently consists of approximately 270 articles, has more than 875 subscribers and well over one million views. Although many articles in RDR discuss some aspect of the Total Quality Framework, eight articles published in 2021 were devoted to two specific areas relevant to the Total Quality Framework, i.e., research integrity and the qualitative research proposal. These eight articles are the focus in this document, “The Total Quality Framework: 8 Articles in RDR in 2021 on Research Integrity & Qualitative Research Proposal Design.”

As stated in the introduction to this document, many other compilations of RDR articles are available. In addition to those mentioned, year-end collections of articles are typically available, with the first of these posted in January 2012, “Questions & Answers: Selected Articles from Research Design Review.”